WRITINGS ON SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY  

This page lets you access a fairly complete catalogue of my work on topics in the physical and biological sciences, pure and applied psychology and human factors, and philosophy, each with an abstract describing the contents of the document.

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          ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

          HUMAN MACHINE INTERACTION AND AUTOMATION
          ATTENTION, COMPLACENCY, and TRUST
          DISPLAY DESIGN
          MENTAL WORKLOAD
          PHILOSOPHY
          TRAVEL AND CULTURE
          GENERAL ERGONOMICS




ACT-R Progress Review 1999.
What should a model of “real” cognition be like?
    Moray, N.  1999.  Invited critical paper on state of progress in ACT-R development 1999. Concentrates on the need
    for cognitive modelling to deal with real-time dynamics.


Advanced displays can be hazardous: the problem of evaluation.
    Neville Moray. 1995.  Kyoto meeting on nuclear safety.
    A study of the way in which "intelligent" displays in control rooms, that can be configured in real time by operators, can
    provoke operator errors.

 
ADVANCED DISPLAYS, CULTURAL STEREOTYPES, AND ORGANISATIONAL
CHARACTERISTICS OF A CONTROL ROOM.
    Moray, N. 1997. Presented at the Nuclear Human Factors Meeting in Berlin 1997 and printed in Proceedings. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the degree to which cultural , organisational and even ergonomic differences may have to be overcome if such transfer of knowledge and behavioural technology is to be successful. In addition, it is important to consider failure modes at the organisational level in foreseeing the way in which international cooperation may fail to be effective. Of particular interest is the effect of choosing patterns of human-computer interaction in the design of control rooms.


ALLOCATION OF FUNCTION, ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION, AND FAULT MANAGEMENT
Neville Moray,  Toshiuki Inagaki , Makoto Itoh. 1998. Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society meeting.
Sheridan’s “Levels of Automation” were explored in an experiment on fault management of a continuous process control task which included situation adaptive automation.  Levels of automation with more or less automation autonomy, and different levels of advice to the operator were compared, with automatic diagnosis whose reliability varied. The efficiency of process control and of fault management were explored under human control and automation in fault management, and aspects of the task in which human or automation were the more efficient defined.  The results are related to earlier work on trust and self confidence in allocation  of function by Lee, Moray, and Muir.


Analysing and modelling train driver performance
Ronald W McLeod, Guy Walker, Neville Moray, Ann Mills. Nickleby HFE Ltd. Date uncertain, early-2000 decade.
 Arguments for the importance of contextual factors in understanding human performance have been extremely persuasive in the context of the process control industries. This paper puts these arguments into the context of the train driving task, drawing on an extensive analysis of driver performance with the Automatic Warning System (AWS). The paper summarises a number of constructs from applied psychological research which are thought to be important in understanding train driver performance. A “Situational Model” of is offered as a framework for investigating driver performance in a particular context and situation. The model emphasises the importance of understanding the state of driver cognition

 
Attention and complacency
Neville Moray and Toshiyuki Inagaki  Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, 2001.
The problem of complacency is analysed, and it is shown that previous research which claims to show its existence is defective, because the existence of complacency can not be proved unless optimal behaviour is specified as a benchmark. Using gedanken experiments, it is further shown that, in general, not even with optimal monitoring can all signals be detected. Complacency is concerned with attention (monitoring, sampling), not with detection, and there is little evidence for complacent behaviour. To claim that behaviour is complacent is to blame the operator for failure to detect signals. This is undesirable, since so-called complacent behaviour may rather be the fault of poor systems design.

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY OF INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE ENGINEERING.
Neville Moray. 2006. Chapter in Handbook of Cognitive engineering. Ed. Durso, F.
Cognitive engineering is not synonymous with human-computer interaction.  Computers are increasingly used in automation, but many automated systems did not and indeed do not use programmable general purpose digital computers.   Many petrochemical plants and nuclear power plants were built long before full digital control systems were available, and yet both contain much automation.  It is not the character of human-computer interaction which determines the quality of cognitive engineering in a system.  It is the quality of human-machine interaction, however that may implemented.
 
 EVALUATION OF FULL-SCOPE SIMULATOR TESTING METHODS
M.P.Feher, N.Moray, J.W.Senders, and K. Biron HUMAN FACTORS NORTH, INC SSC FILE #: 55SS.87055-6-4148
This report discusses the use of full scope nuclear power plant simulators in licensing examinations for Unit First Operators of CANDU reactors. The existing literature is reviewed, and an annotated bibliography of the more important sources provided. The existing literature is inadequate to provide a complete guide for CANDU operator examinations. A contract performed by HFN for Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada.

Humans and Machines: Allocation of Function
Neville Moray Date uncertain. Chapter in a book. . It is now agreed that in automated systems humans are needed at least for two purposes, as the last line of defence in hazardous operations, and to improve productivity. While the first is generally accepted, the latter may be more surprising, since during automation it is often possible to design a system to perform in a mathematically optimal way. However, it can be shown that humans and machines when combined can sometimes exceed the performance
 
Quantitative Model of Dynamic Visual Attention
    Neville Moray & Toshiuki Inagaki.  2000. Unpublished.  A model for attention based on the probability of observed events that
     are
modelled in the brain and used to predict sampling intervals.  This model was intended to be a fairly complete model of
     dynamic attention, particularly visual attention.

 

Software Command Agents in Battlefield Training Simulation.
     Neville Moray. 1999.  Contract ASF/3407.
     A report prepared  for DERA assessing the practicality of using software agents to simulate the role played by humans in realistic training simulators for battlefield decision making. Note the date.  Rather out of date because of the advances in AI and computer science development. There is an annotated bibliography that may be of some interest.

 

Towards a formalism for theories of naturalistic decision making.
     Neville Moray, Toshiyuki Inagaki, and Makoto Itoh.
1998.
     An unpublished paper describing the application of Evidence Theory and Possibility Theory to the modelling of human decisions in 'real life' situations.
 
What should a model of “real” cognition be like?
     Neville Moray 1999.
     A review of progress up to 1999 of the modelling of cognition using ACT-R.